Rajesh Kumar Upadhyay*
Department of Zoology, Ramgarh College Ramgarh,Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh, Jharkhand, India
Received : 20th December, 2021 ; Revised : 21st January, 2022
Abstract– The plant Solanum lycopersicum (L) ‘Tomato’ is cultivated and commonly used in domesticated agro business, consumed as raw and in cooked form. The plant naturally contains tannins and cyanide precursors protect it from pests, predators and fungal attack. The serious pest Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Tomato fruit worm) destructs the crop and causes the loss of its agribusinesses. It is a polyphagus pest infests the green plant Solanum lycopersicum (L) and other cultivated vegetables. High reproductive potential makes it the serious pest causing significant economic damage. High dispersal capacity of the pest makes it cosmopolitan. Activity of Helicoverpa armigera was maximum during February to October and completed 03 to 04 over lapping generations in a year. The caterpillars of the pest damage the standing crops at night. During day time they hide in cracks and crevices in soil. The larva attains its maximum size in 17 to 30 days and enters into cracks or crevices and forms their earthen chamber and pupates underground. The pupal period varies from 13 to 25 days and the moth emerges out at night. The life cycle gets completed in 35 to 65 days. The life cycle was studied during the year 2018-2020 at Ramgarh. And it was found that the life-cycle of the experimental pest Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) was very simple. The larvae after 3rd to 4th instar were photo negative, hidden in the soil during day time. In extreme hot climatic season the pest larvae and pupa hide under 20 to 30 mm in cracks and crevices in the soil. There was an observation that the moth migrates towards cold region of hills during extreme hot climate. Destruction of host plant by pest was 50% to 80%. Prevention from the pest was very difficult. The farmers were advised to control the pest by spraying the chemical pesticides as lindane 02% or carbaryl 0.1% or endrin 0.1% etc. Various natural enemies like moles, grubs, wasps, predaceous and parasitic flies destroy the larvae of the pest and were natural control of the pest population.