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Analysis of changes in land use land cover and seasonal land surface temperature using remote sensing data and GIS in PMC Area, Patna, Bihar

Mohammad Yasir Ahmada*, Nikhat Hassan Munimb & Shashi Sekharc
aDepartment of Environmental Science, Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya, Bihar, India
bDepartment of Zoology, J.D. Women’s College, Patna, Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya, Bihar, India
cDepartment of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Uttar Pradesh, India
Received : 13th December, 2022 ; Revised : 14th January, 2023

Abstract– Land use land cover (LULC) has significantly affected land surface temperature (LST) due to rapid regional and global urbanisation. Due to the urban heat effect, the dynamic changes in land surface temperature. This research examines the analysis of modification in land use land cover and LST conditions in the PMC, Patna, Bihar. We have employed the Remote Sensing (RS) approach and GIS methods on satellite-driven data of the study area. Further ground truthing has been done to authenticate the changes concerning LST and LULC from 2007-2017. It examines its association with changes in LULC. Land use land cover map of PMC, Patna was developed by using Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) LISS IV Satellite images of the year 2007-2018 with 5.8-meter spatial resolution. For LULC, the maximum likelihood equation and the supervised classification techniques were implemented to classified two multi-date or multi-temporal satellite images. Then temporal changes were identified by comparing two LULC maps formed independently between 2007 and 2017. The seasonal variations of land surface temperature (LST) maps were developed applying Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data of 2007 and 2017 acquired from NASA LPDAC to address the variability of land surface temperature. In the recent past, due to imprudent land management, rapid population expansion and their activities related to urban/ economic development caused significant natural landscape changes. Thus, PMC Patna has become environmentally sensitive to ecological and environmental deterioration risks. This study aims to analyse changes in LULC and LST in Patna Municipal Corporation, Patna. It is decisive for updating significant modification of LULC and variation in LST over time 2007-2017 in the study area. The research analysis reveals the substantial changes in land use, land cover, and LST developed in the PMC area, Patna. The result shows significant changes designed in the built-up area by increasing (+) 21.86 %, and cropland and vegetation area declined by (-) 8.95 % and (-) 5.8 %, respectively, between 2007-2017. The LST results indicated land surface temperatures varied from 1.02oC to 3.08oC from 2007 to 2017. These results acknowledged that the changes in LULC have significantly influenced the LST in the PMC area, Patna. It could result from cropland and vegetation cover changes between 2007 and 2017, as acknowledged in the LULC change. The enlargement or extension of built-up area and decrease in the vegetal landscape is human-induced, resulting in temperature changes since 2007. The study shows that changes in different types of LULC due to an increase in anthropogenic activities with the expansion of urban landscape, along with changes in cropping patterns, can degrade the spatial pattern of urban land surface temperature (LST). This study will benefit future land use and urban development action plans. The study will provide helpful guidelines for environmental engineers and planners to consider expanding urban built-up area enlargement and spatial configurations without proper LULC planning and conserve natural ecological sustainability.

Key words: False Color Composite, Geographical Information System, Image processing, Land use Land cover, Land Surface Temperature, Remote sensing, Resourcesat, Satellite Imagery

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