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Arsenic induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in the kidney of fresh water fish Clarias batrachus

G.B. Chanda* & Pawan Kumara
a*P.G. Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna
Received , 05th January, 2013 ;     Revised:10th February, 2013

Abstract : The present research work is aimed to investigate the deleterious impact of arsenic trioxide (AS2O3) on fresh water fish Clarias batrachus based upon histopathological studies of renal tissue by light microscopy as well as estimation of LPO (Lipid peroxidation). Healthy fish were collected from NMCH fish farm during pre-spawning season and acclimatized in the ideal laboratory condition for 15 days. Fish were fed with commercial pelleted diet @3-4% of body weight. The LC of commercial brand Arsenic trioxide (CAS No. A13629) was calculated as per standard APHA method and accordingly 15/06th, 1/4th and ½th of LC50 value were administered to the fish for one, two and four week respectively. After termination of each exposure blood samples were collected in a heparinized glass culture tube and serum was extracted and estimated for LPO by standard method. The renal tissues were fixed in aqueous Bouin’s fixative and processed for light microscopy. 5thick sections were cut on rotary microtome and dehydrated through graded series of alcohol, double stained in haematoxylin and eosin, cleaned in xylene and mounted in DPX. The LM photography was done by Canon Ixus 130S digital camera. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using paired ‘t’ test and one way ANOVA test and considered significant at P<0.05. Arsenic showed a significant increasing trend in a serum LPO in different groups of treated fish over control. The major histopathological anomalies incurred in kidney were shrinkage and constriction in glomerular tuft, inflammation of podocytes, widening of urinary space, increased incidence of necrotic renal tubule, massive fibrosis of arcuate artery and arcuate vein, infilteration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in peritubular space. Coincidence of biochemical and histopathological findings clearly suggests that arsenic even at its sublethal dose affects the overall health status of fish.

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