Braj Rani, V.N.C Singh* & Jitendra Kumar
Department of Zoology, T.M Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, Bihar- 812007
Received 12th May, 2019; Revised 30th August, 2009
Anodic protein(ANP) concentration and M-isozymes of LDH(M-LDH) maintain higher level in the uterine fluid of neem treated mice from DAM-1 to DAM -7 then control. However, ANP shows rising trend from DAM-1 to DAM -5 and thereafter decline sharply from DAM-5 to DAM -7 in neem oil treated mice but maintained throughout significantly higher (p<0.01) level than control. This trend is also exhibited by M.LDH in neem treated mice which shows rising trend from DAM-1 to DAM-3 and then gradually declined from DAM -5 to DAM -7 but maintains significantly higher level from DAM 3 to DAM -7(p<0.01) than control.
This suggests that neem oil being estrogenic in nature has selective and directional influence on anodic protein and M-iszymes of LDH in the uterine fluid of mice during pre and post implantation of stages. Highest level of electronegative protein (Anodic protein) during implantation (DAM- 5) and significantly higher level at (p<0.01) at DAM-3 in the uterine fluid of treated mice may add negative charge on sperm surface membrane which possibly affect capacitation of spermatozoa thus causing infertility among them.
highest level of M-LDH at DAM-3 (pre-implantation stage) and throughout significantly (p<0.01) higher activity of M-isozymes in neem treated mice during DAM- 5 and DAM- 7 than control suggests predominance of M-LDH (LDH4 & LDH5) from DAM-1 to DAM-7 which leads to an aerobic condition by converting pyruvate into lactate in the uterine lumen of neem treated mice. These M- isozymes provide low oxygen tension in the uterus which leads to various uterine dysfunction and promotes and contractility thus reducing receptivity of uterus for uterine attachment for growing blastocyst in the uterus unlike control.
Thus in the neem oil treated mice environment is neither suitable for capacitation of spermatozoa due to rise in Anodic protein(ANP), nor conducive for growth, development, implantation and survival of blastocyst that leads to termination of pregnancy due to rise in M-LDH. This suggests that neem oil shows antifertility effect by selectively modulating protein and isozymes pattern in uterine fluid of mice and therefore can be used as for oral contraceptive for fertility control.