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Bioethanol production from renewable raw materials wheat straw and waste vegetables

Dinesh Krishna* & Arun Kumar
University Department of Zoology, B.N.Mandal University, Madhepura, Bihar, India
Received : 11th October, 2018 ; Revised :13th January, 2019

Abstract- Bioethanol significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution and has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide. It can be produced from various types of feed stocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars, compared to other types of microorganisms and yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

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