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Review study on altitudinal zonation of floral and faunal species, its richness and distribution

Narayan Lal Choudharya, Nadim Chishtya* & Puneet Sharmab
aWildlife, Limnology & Toxicology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Government Meera Girl’s College,
Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
bDepartment of Life Sciences, Aryan College Ajmer, Rajasthan, India
Received : 15th January, 2021 ; Revised : 17th February, 2021

AbstractMany floral and faunal species are restricted in a particular narrow zone of habitat characteristically in mountain ecosystem. The mountain ecosystem acts as an isolated and unique habitat, and sometimes functions as an isolated island like wetland natural ecosystem. Isolated or higher altitudinal ranges create unique habitat for a range of floral and faunal species and increases the degree of endemism as compared to other habitat which can be more vulnerable to local extinction and very sensitive towards topographical changes in a particular habitat. In this regard a collective effort was needed to review the altitudinal zonation in terms of floral and faunal species richness and distribution. During present review studies it has been found that biotic and abiotic factors influences distribution and diversity pattern of floral and faunal species from low elevation level to higher elevation level. Higher altitudinal survival species are very sensitive towards micro changes in their habitat which can affect them adversely. In present time many anthropogenic activities (like mining in hill areas, deforestation, poaching etc.) and natural disasters (like forest fires on mountains, landslides etc.) leads to unfavorable and irreversible alteration in floral and faunal species mountain ecosystem and at certain time vanish them at all. It has been reviewed that variation in altitudinal ranges also affect breeding biology, morphological and physiological adaption in floral and faunal communities and create wide range of diverse habitat and ecosystems.

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