Umapati Sahaya*, Manjula Kumarib, Anjana Prema Vandana Khalkhoc, Anita Jhad & Hem Srivastavae
*aFormer Head, Dept. of Zoology, Ranchi University & Dean Fac. of Science, R.U., Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.
bDept. of Bot., Govt. Girls College, Gardani Bagh, Patna, Bihar, India.
cDept. of Zoology, Womens College, Chaibasa, Jharkhand, India.
dDept. of Zoology, Gardanibagh Womens College, Patna-2, Bihar, India.
eFreelance Environmental Biologist, R.U., Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.
Received 12th September, 2012; Revised 15th November, 2012
Abstract : For survival, one has to device suitable strategies in a world of oscillating adversities (i.e., combating adversities).
A combination of intrinsic forces and supportive environment provides high speed strategy in achieving success and suitable adaptations. Such adaptations in helminths may be structural, physiological, biochemical, genetical, ecological and constitutional which must have taken a lot of time under the evolutionary impact. Evolution does not take place in hurry yet most of the strategic adaptations (suitable ones) are accomplished with criteria to exist.
Helminths are a group of animals, mostly parasitic which are thought to have evolved from free living ancestors which faced tremendous oscillations of climatic conditions varying differently in different regions/locations. Helminths, therefore, planned their strategies in collaboration with intrinsic and extrinsic forces/ factors.
The switching on to a parasitic mode of life (living in an alien world) the Helminths maneuvered strategically a number of hurdles and achieved marvels of continuing their race.
In an attempt to formulate survival strategies, the helminths utilized r- & k- selection strategies through natural selection and became victorious in combating the adversities to an extent that their total elimination by any means has become improbable because they redressed their problems with utmost cautiousness and maneuverings (the helminths are capable of switching from r- to k- selection & vice versa at the same time.
The authors have compiled in this paper the informations available to prove that helminths are one of the best animal strategists for their successful survival leading to multitude of adaptations.
Key words: Plant nematodes, Animal helminths, strategies, adaptations, r- & k- selection
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